Backbone

columna

The backbone is composed by a set of vertebrae (7 cervical, 12 thoracic and 5 lumbar) aligned in the frontal plane with an adaptation in the sagittal plane (cervical lordosis, dorsal kyphosis and lumbar lordosis) which favors the correct spine alignment, allowing bipedestation and trunk flexion. A proper alignment and stability are important as they support the body weight and keep it upright. Main movement is on the plane of flexion-extension but is able to register movements as inclinations and rotations.

Protocols related to the backbone are:

  • Cervical Protocol
  • Dorso-Lumbar Protocol
  • Lumbar Protocol

 

 

Cervical Protocol

Cervical

Cervical spine is composed of seven vertebrae which are aligned one another in the frontal plane, and adapted in sagital plane (physiological lordosis), which promotes proper alignment of the spine, cushion and correct distribution of head weight. The main movement of cervical segment occurs in flexion and extension plane, but also inclination and rotation are allowed. This protocol analyzes each of them, in order to obtain information about cervical spine status.

The test is divided into two different sections:

  1. Three-dimensional movement analysis
  2. Strength and muscle activity analysis.

 

 

3D Motion Analysis

The following movements are measured systematically:

  • Active flexion and extensión
  • Active lateral flexion
  • Active rotation

 

Dynamometry + Surface EMG

It will be analyzed the maximum isometric force by the patient at two different angles:

  • At 90 degrees shoulder abduction, with extended elbow and pronated wrist.
  • At 45 degrees shoulder abduction, with extended elbow and pronated wrist.

 

The maximum isometric analysis will determine the levels of strength and muscle fatigue sensation affecting the functionality of the patient. In addition, registration at different angles provides information on the influence of the arc of movement in implementing the effort and the neuromuscular activation pattern.

Muscles bilaterally assessed are: Upper Trapezius, Middle Deltoid and Cervical Paraspinals.

 

Dorso-lumbar Protocol

Dorso-LumbarThe lumbar spine is composed of five vertebrae aligned with one another in the frontal plane and adapted in the sagittal plane (physiological lordosis) that promotes proper alignment of the spine and allow facilitate standing trunk flexion. Proper alignment and stability is important as they support the body weight and keep it upright. The main movement occurs in the plane of flexion and extension

The test is divided into two different sections:

  1. Three-dimensional movement analysis
  2. Strength and muscle activity analysis.

 

 

3D Motion Analysis

Active flexion and extension

  • Flexo-extensión activa

 

Dynamometry + EMG surface

It will be analyzed the maximum isometric force by the patient at two different angles:

  • At 0 degrees of trunk flexion, standing.
  • At 30 degrees trunk flexion, standing.

 

The maximum isometric analysis will determine the levels of strength and muscle fatigue affecting the functionality of the patient. In addition, registration at different angles provides information on the influence of the arc of movement in implementing the effort and the neuromuscular activation pattern.

Muscles bilaterally assessed are: Lumbar paraspinal, Spinal erector and Gluteus maximus.

 

Lumbar Protocol

Lumbar

The lumbar spine is composed of five vertebrae aligned with one another in the frontal plane and adapted in the sagittal plane (physiological lordosis) that promotes proper alignment of the spine and allow facilitate standing trunk flexion. Proper alignment and stability is important as they support the body weight and keep it upright. The main movement occurs in the plane of flexion and extension.

The test is divided into two different sections:

  1. Three-dimensional movement analysis
  2. Strength and muscle activity analysis.

 

 

3D Motion Analysis

The following movements are measured systematically:

  • Active flexion and extension

 

Dynamometry + EMG surface

It will be analyzed the maximum isometric force by the patient at two different angles:

  • At 0 degrees of trunk flexion, standing.
  • At 30 degrees trunk flexion, standing.

 

The maximum isometric analysis will determine the levels of strength and muscle fatigue affecting the functionality of the patient. In addition, registration at different angles provides information on the influence of the arc of movement in implementing the effort and the neuromuscular activation pattern.

Muscles bilaterally assessed are: Lumbar paraspinal, Spinal erector and Gluteus maximus.
 

 

Upper Limbs

ext sup

During the evolutionary process, man has been able to modify the anatomy of the upper limbs to take advantage of the environment. For this reason , it has developed three main joint complexes with different functions that allows to reach a wide range of environment (shoulder ) , get objects closer to your body (elbow ) and manipulate them (wrist – hand). Injuries to the upper limbs are highly incapacitating and dynamic assessment is vital to correctly determine the degree of disability of people suffering such injuries.

In all these evaluations, the tests run bilaterally, in order to obtain an objective comparison between the healthy and affection side of the patient.

Protocols related to the study of the upper limbs are:

  1. Shoulder Protocol
  2. Elbow Protocol
  3. Hand-wrist complex Protocol

 

 

Shoulder Protocol

Hombros

The shoulder joint complex, due to its anatomical features, has 7 degrees of freedom and is the one with higher mobility’ degrees in the human body.

The evaluation process includes the glenohumeral joint movement (flexion and extension, abduction adduction and rotation) because is involved in most activities of daily living.

The test is divided into two different sections:

  1. Three-dimensional movement analysis
  2. Strength and muscle activity analysis.

 

 

3D Motion Analysis

The following bilaterally movements are analyzed systematically:

  • Active flexion-extension
  • Active flexion-extension with load
  • Active abduction-adduction
  • Active abduction-adduction with load
  • Active Rotations (internal and external)
  • Active Rotations (internal and external) with load

 

Dynamometry + EMG surface

It will be analyzed the maximum isometric force by the patient at two different angles:

  • At 90 degrees shoulder abduction, with extended elbow and pronated wrist.
  • At 45 degrees shoulder abduction, with extended elbow and pronated wrist.

 

The maximum isometric analysis will determine the levels of strength and muscle fatigue affecting the functionality of the patient. In addition, registration at different angles provides information on the influence of the arc of movement in implementing the effort and the neuromuscular activation pattern.

Muscles bilaterally assessed are: Middle deltoid, Upper trapezius and Infraspinatus.

 

Elbow Protocol

Codos

The elbow joint complex shows two different movements: flexion-extension (which allows to approximate hand to mouth) and pronation-supination (which allows spatial orientation of the hand).

The evaluation process includes both of them, in order to obtain a global status of the elbow.

The test is divided into two different sections:

  1. Three-dimensional movement analysis
  2. Strength and muscle activity analysis.

 

 

Dynamometry + EMG surface

The following bilaterally movements are analyzed systematically:

  • Active flexion-extension
  • Active flexion-extension with load
  • Active pronation – supination
  • Active pronation – supination with load

 

Dinamometría + EMG superficie

It will be analyzed the maximum isometric force by the patient at two different angles:

  • At 90 degrees elbow flexion
  • At 45 degrees elbow flexion

 

The maximum isometric analysis will determine the levels of strength and muscle fatigue affecting the functionality of the patient. In addition, registration at different angles provides information on the influence of the arc of movement in implementing the effort and the neuromuscular activation pattern.

Muscles bilaterally assessed are: Biceps braquialis, Triceps braquialis and Anterior Deltoid.

Hand-wrist joint complex protocol

Mano-muñeca

 

The hand-wrist joint complex allows multitudinous actions and movements. For the functional evaluation the chosen movements are flexo-extension and radio-ulnar deviation, being primarily responsible for most activities of daily living, and therefore the movements with greater impact on these daily activities.

The test is divided into two different sections:

  1. Three-dimensional movement analysis
  2. Strength and muscle activity analysis

 

3D Motion Analysis

The following bilaterally movements are analyzed systematically:

  • Active flexion and extensión
  • Active flexion and extension with load
  • Active radio-ulnar deviation
  • Active radio-ulnar deviation with load

 

Dynamometry + EMG surface

It will be analyzed the maximum isometric force by the patient at different angles:

  • At 30 degrees wrist flexion, with 90 degrees elbow flexion.
  • At 30 degrees wrist extension, with 90 degrees elbow flexion.
  • Neutral flexion-extension wrist, with 90 degrees elbow flexion.
  • At 30 degrees wrist radial deviation, with 90 degrees elbow flexion.
  • At 30 degrees wrist ulnar deviation, with 90 degrees elbow flexion.
  • Neutral pronation-supination wrist, with 90 degrees elbow flexion.

 

The maximum isometric analysis will determine the levels of strength and muscle fatigue affecting the functionality of the patient. In addition, registration at different angles provides information on the influence of the arc of movement in implementing the effort and the neuromuscular activation pattern.

Muscles bilaterally assessed are: Brachioradialis, wrist flexors and extensors.

 

 

 

Lower Limbs

extremidades inferiores

The lower extremities are designed for walking and support the weight of the body. Structurally complex consists of hip, knee and ankle-foot complex that accomplishes the movement of running or walking. It is a characteristic movement of our specie and requires coordination of different segments for proper execution. It is therefore that any anomaly at lower extremities level can be easily detected by their study.

In all these evaluations, the tests run bilaterally, in order to obtain an objective comparison between the healthy and affection side of the patient.

Protocols related to the study of the lower limbs are:

  • Knee Protocol
  • Ankle Protocol

 

 

Knee Protocol

Rodillas

The knee complex joint is designed to support body weight during the process of human walking and therefore the measurement of force at this level is vital for the correct knowledge and evaluation of this body segment. Any anomaly at the level of lower limbs can be easily detected thanks to the multi-joint gait analysis.

The test is divided into two different sections:

  1. Three-dimensional movement analysis
  2. Strength and muscle activity analysis.

 

 

3D Motion Analysis

A test of gait analysis based on the needs of each patient (type of footwear, external orthotics etc.) is performed.

This assessment includes:

  • Comprehensive Exploration of the lower extremities (pelvis, hip, knee, ankle, foot) bilaterally, allowing abnormalities locally (at the site of injury) and compensation in other joints that can cause injury in the future.

 

Dynamometry + EMG surface

It will be analyzed the maximum isometric force by the patient at:

  • At 90 degrees knee flexion, with hip flexion.

The maximum isometric assessment will determine the levels of strength and muscle fatigue or pain affecting the functionality of the patient.

Muscles bilaterally assessed are: External vastus, Anterior rectus and Internal vastus.

Ankle Protocol

tobillosAnkle and foot are a morpho-functional and clinical unit, that must be considered integrated in the kinematic chain of lower limb. Any anomaly level in these joints can be easily detected performing a gait analysis.

The test includes:

  1. Three-dimensional movement analysis

 

3D Motion Analysis

A test of gait analysis based on the needs of each patient (type of footwear, external orthotics etc.) is performed.

This assessment includes:

  • Comprehensive Exploration of the lower extremities (pelvis, hip, knee, ankle, foot) bilaterally, allowing abnormalities locally (at the site of injury) and compensation in other joints that can cause injury in the future.

 

 

 

Multiarticular gait analysis

Multiarticular gait analysis

marchaIn addition to mono-articular analysis, OSMLAB offers a multiarticular 3D gait assessment. The international “Conventional Gait model” is used, which includes pelvic measurement following “Helen Hayes” standard, and rotation detection by using 4 clusters correctly aligned. Data processing is made by biomechanical analysis system. Pelvic, hip, knee and ankle motion are captured by this system in the three rotational axis, with an error of less than 1 mm, simultaneously in different gait cycles of the test.

The multiarticular 3D gait analysis allows obtaining objective and helpful data in clinical test:p

  • Temporal and spatial parameters (time and support percentage, time and swing percentage, gait cycle time, step length and width, speed, cadence…)
  • Kinematic data of pelvis, hip, knee and ankle in the 3 movement planes (flexion-extension angles, abduction and adduction, rotations).
  • Pathological impact and functional compensations in ascending and descending chains, allowed by simultaneously study of different articular levels in lower limbs.

 

 

Equilibrium Analysis and Postural Control

Equilibrium Analysis and Postural Control

Imagen 1

The equilibrium analysis and postural control protocol of OSMLAB is performed using the static system posturography.

The patient performs a series of clinical tests, named Romberg’s Test on a static dynamometric platform. The execution of the different tests can discriminate the influence of vestibular, somatosensory and visual systems in patient balance diseases, deviations from the center of gravity during the time and the distribution of plantar loads to carry out the static postural control.

 

 

 

The protocol is divided into four different tests:

  • Romberg test with open eyes
  • Romberg test with closed eyes
  • Romberg test with open eyes on an unstable platform
  • Romberg test with closed eyes on an unstable platform

 

The different tests from Romberg test increase the difficulty and vestibular postural control in the patient, allowing obtaining highly relevant clinical information on sensory and motor information affecting the balance of the patient.

2

 

 

Pathologies associated protocols

Fibromyalgia

Thanks to the extensive experience we have acquired in the biomechanical analysis, OSMLAB has the ability to create new protocols of Body Damage Assessment. We have now realized the first studies on the application of a multimodal protocol for the quantification of functionality in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia, using a methodology of intervention based on the combination of various biomechanical tests scientifically supported. The objectivity of the tests used and combined application provides information on the actual functional deficit of patients suffering from this disease, and is an important integrating tool in the process of assessing the disease, for which , today , there is still no consensus on clinical diagnosis